It needs to be emphasized that the protective effect of this MD pattern may be driven not only by MUFAs, but also by the phenolic compounds in which olive oil is rich, exerting anti-inflammatory, metabolic, and antioxidant effects [ 32, 33, 34, 35 ]. Finally, they have well known protective effects against the risk for diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardio-vascular diseases, and all-cause mortality [ 55, 56 ]. In addition to improvement in steatosis, PUFA may induce an independent, anti-inflammatory effect via suppression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, responsible for the inflammation occurring in NASH[ 71 ]. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. Lack of an association between MD and NAFLD prevalence can be explained by the fact that the intake of certain foods such as milk and milk products, olive oil, wine and nuts was lower in this study cohort than in the traditional MD[ 36 ]. After 6 mo of follow-up, MD either alone or in association with the Realsil complex resulted in significant improvement in fat accumulation as well as in BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin resistance values[ 45 ]. Mediterranean diet MD, rich in polyunsaturated fats, polyphenols, vitamins and carotenoids, with their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, has been suggested to be effective in preventing cardiovascular risk factors. Fraser et al[ 38 ],
Diet largely influences gut microbiota and its products[ 83 ]. In this context, the relevance of diet NAFLD carb its. Coffee and non-alcoholic fatty liver. Liver fat is reduced by adherence isoenergetic Mediterannean diet in a controlled randomized study in type 2 NAFLD patients. This article has been cited by other articles low PMC.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is emerging as the most common chronic liver disease, and is characterized by a wide spectrum of fat-liver disorders that can result in severe liver disease and cirrhosis. However, lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet for quality and quantity, are considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management. Mediterranean diet MD, rich in polyunsaturated fats, polyphenols, vitamins and carotenoids, with their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, has been suggested to be effective in preventing cardiovascular risk factors. In adults, MD has also been demonstrated to be efficacious in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome. Thus, the aims of the present narrative review are to analyze the current clinical evidence on the impact of MD in patients with NAFLD, and to summarize the main mechanisms of action of MD components on this condition. Core tip: Lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet, are considered the cornerstone of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD management. The Mediterranean diet MD, low in saturated fats and animal protein, high in antioxidants and fibers, and with an adequate omega-3 to omega-6 fatty balance, has been suggested to be effective in NAFLD. Although the results from the available studies are encouraging, there is still need of trials with larger sample size, along with the standardization of the criteria to evaluate adherence to the diet, before including the MD as a therapeutic dietary pattern in NAFLD. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease[ 1, 2 ].