These associations were either abolished or attenuated if the source of proteins was plant-based. Conversely, in respondents over age 65, high protein intake was associated with reduced cancer and overall mortality. Mouse studies confirmed the effect of high protein intake and the GHR-IGF-1 axis on the incidence and progression of breast and melanoma tumors, and also the detrimental effects of a low protein diet in the very old. These results suggest that low protein intake during middle age followed by moderate protein consumption in old subjects may optimize healthspan and longevity. Caloric restriction CR without malnutrition has been consistently shown to increase longevity in a number of animal models, including yeast, C. However, the effect of CR on the lifespan of non-human primates remains controversial, and may be heavily influenced by dietary composition Cava and Fontana, ; Colman et al. The lifespan extension associated with CR in model organisms is believed to operate through its effects on GH, GHR, leading to subsequent deficiencies in IGF-1 and insulin levels and signaling Bartke et al. Recently, we showed that humans with growth hormone receptor deficiency GHRD, also exhibiting major deficiencies in serum IGF-1 and insulin levels, displayed no cancer mortality or diabetes. Despite having a higher prevalence of obesity, combined deaths from cardiac disease and stroke in this group were similar to those in their relatives Guevara-Aguirre et al. Protein restriction or restriction of particular amino acids, such as methionine and tryptophan, may explain part of the effects of calorie restriction and GHRD mutations on longevity and disease risk, since protein restriction is sufficient to reduce IGF-1 levels, and can reduce cancer incidence or increase longevity in model organisms independently of calorie intake Ayala et al. Our analytic sample had a mean age of 65 years and is representative of the U.
Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metab. Dietary protein consumption was examined in a US population cohort and links sought to overall and disease specific mortality. Mean age was 65 years and was representative of the US population in ethnicity, education, and health characteristics. Mortality was followed via the National Death Index until , which provides timing and cause of death. These associations were either abolished or attenuated if the proteins were plant-derived. Conversely, high protein intake was associated with reduced cancer and overall mortality in respondents over
Nature reviews Cancer. A meta-analysis indicated that a high consumption of red meat tends to increase the risk of CVD mortality and cancer and that a high consumption of processed meat significantly increases the risk of cancer and CVD mortality and diabetes [ 8 ]. Finally, this approach has also been found to accurately assess energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, regardless of body mass index Conway et al. Zhenyukh O. She loves experimenting with new vegan recipes and believes hummus is a food group. Research Intelligence.